Adele Diamond

Child Development and the Brain: Promoting Resilience and Joy

"Executive functions" (EFs) are the cognitive control abilities dependent on prefrontal cortex (PFC) such as selective attention and self-regulation. They make possible  mentally playing with ideas, thinking before acting, resisting temptations,  staying focused, problem-solving, and meeting novel, unanticipated challenges.  These abilities are amenable to improvement through training and practice  throughout life -- even in very young children without specialists or fancy  equipment. Diverse activities have been shown to improve EFs.

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